The opening of the Panama Canal introduced many new trade routes, in particular that for the carriage of merchandise between the Pacific Coast of North America and the United Kingdom and the Continent. This route has grown in the last few years, and special vessels have been built to carry the grain and lumber of the northern ports and the fresh fruit of California. The Canada, one of the latest of these dual-cargo ships, is one of the most powerful single-screw ships afloat.
The fascinating story of historic house flags and funnels. This article describes the many-coloured devices and coats of arms which merchant vessels have borne throughout the history of maritime trade. This chapter deals not only with the flags of modern steamship companies, but also with those of the pioneers of merchant shipping. Much of the material of this chapter has not been published previously.
The double-page centre-spread colour plate which appeared with this article. It comprises a total of 60 individual flags and funnels with a numbered key. The flags range from (1) the Levant Company of 1581 (left-hand page, upper left) to (20) Nicholson of Annan after 1860 (left-hand page, lower right); and from (21) the McCunn Company (right-hand page, top left) to (60) the Anchor Line (right-hand page, lower right).
The “shell-back” - or forecastle-hand of sailing ship days - was a product of the conditions in which he worked and lived. He was hardy and courageous by nature, and the circumstances of his life made him accept extreme discomfort with comparative indifference.