The “Monarch of Bermuda” and the “Queen of Bermuda” are two large British liners that run regularly between New York and Bermuda. This special service has definite characteristics which govern the design of luxury liners for the run.
FIRST OF THE TWO FAMOUS LINERS that link New York with Bermuda, the Monarch of Bermuda was built at Newcastle-
The two vessels are enormous yachts, capable of cruising in comfort all round the world. They are the two largest and most important ships which are owned in Great Britain and operated under the Red Ensign but yet run regularly out of the port of New York, which is their base.
The work on which they are engaged is unique. It is interesting to note the way in which the Bermuda traffic has been built up. The Monarch of Bermuda and her sister ship the Queen of Bermuda carry passengers outwards and a cargo of water, because Bermuda is short of water.
They bring passengers and fresh vegetables homewards from the p group of Atlantic islands which are known as the Bermudas.
Furness, Withy and Company Limited acquired an interest in this trade shortly after the war of 1914-
almost the same relationship to New York as Honolulu does to San Francisco. In about the same latitude as Charleston, South Carolina, Bermuda enjoys a tropical climate because of its position in the direct sweep of the Gulf Stream. The island is 720 miles from Halifax, Nova Scotia, 660 miles from New York and 568 miles from Cape Hatteras (North Carolina), the point at which north-
The group of islands has a combined land and water area more than five times the land area. The principal town and harbour is Hamilton. This is the terminus of the Furness-
THE THREE FUNNELS of the Monarch of Bermuda, the Furness Withy luxury liner, are black, with one narrow and one wide band of deep red. This unusual photograph gives a striking impression of the liner’s boat deck and superstructure. Four electric motors developing 20,000 shaft horse-
Foreseeing the possibilities of increasing traffic to Bermuda, the Furness, Withy Line took delivery in January 1928 of a quadruple-
The Monarch of Bermuda was completed in 1931 as an improvement on the Bermuda, for the trade which was maintained during the refitting of the original Bermuda had been growing. It was then carried on with the existing old steamers Fort Hamilton and Fort St. George, assisted by chartered vessels which, however, were not altogether suited for the special work.
As a quadruple-
In the Monarch of Bermuda all available space is taken up by passenger accommodation. The portion of the ship left over for propelling machinery is therefore small. This was another reason for the choice of electric propulsion, which could be so conveniently and flexibly arranged in those parts not required for the passenger accommodation. So much passenger accommodation was required, that the lower swimming bath was arranged to occupy the space that in the Queen of Bermuda is the auxiliary engine-
Successful Endurance Trials
In the newer ship it was decided to eliminate this swimming bath so that more ample space was available. As with the Monarch of Bermuda, the contract for building the hull and for the steam portions of the machinery was obtained by Vickers-
Work was started on the Queen of Bermuda at the beginning of 1932 and the ship left the basin of her builders at Barrow-
The leading particulars and general characteristics of the Queen of Bermuda are as shown in the following table:
Length overall 579 ft 6 in.
Length between perpendiculars 553 ft 5 in.
Moulded breadth 76 ft 7 in.
Extreme breadth 83 ft 6 in.
Depth moulded to A Deck 59 ft 9 in.
Depth moulded to B Deck 51 ft 6 in.
Depth moulded to C Deck 43 ft 3 in.
Load draught 27 ft 1 in.
Gross tonnage 22,575
Speed 19½ knots
The hull is of handsome external appearance, with its lofty white superstructure characteristic of the modem passenger liner. The cruiser stern, three black funnels with bands of deep red, two well-
POWER FOR THE ELECTRIC PROPULSION of the Monarch of Bermuda is supplied by steam from eight water tube boilers arranged in groups of four in the boiler-
The New York-
The Queen of Bermuda on one trip set up a new record on the New York-
The vessels are noteworthy for big lofty public rooms and for the number of luxury suites, cabins with baths and other amenities of shipboard life.
Among the most interesting features are the dance floor and the swimming pool. The dance floor is arranged aft and has glazed sides which can be removed as and when necessary. Three-
An illuminated glazed cornice surrounds the well opening and is generally of a pale yellow colour, with a decorative feature glazed with green and red panels interposed at intervals. Additional light is provided by glazed columns at the four corners above the well. The lower ceiling is mainly lighted by indirect means from mirror reflectors concealed in the cornices, and shallow lay-
Leading into the dining saloon is a large foyer, flanked with a cocktail bar on the starboard side. This foyer is considerably larger than that found in many bigger passenger liners. The first-
Another handsome decorative feature is to be found in the smoking-
One important problem with which the architects of the Queen of Bermuda and the Monarch of Bermuda were faced was that of providing for ventilation and of countering the effects of the humid atmosphere encountered particularly in the Gulf Stream, which is crossed on the New York-
More than a hundred ventilating units are used, each incorporating a fan driven by a small motor. Large trunk-
The four screws are driven by electric motors which are nothing more nor less than the big brothers of the motor which drives a domestic refrigerator. Electricity was chosen for propelling the vessels because of its flexibility and the way in which the screws could be controlled. It was also selected because with an electric ship it is possible to place boilers, generators and turbines in almost any place required.
Thus in the Monarch of Bermuda and her sister ship there are altogether eight water tube boilers arranged in two groups of four in special boiler-
The boilers burn oil and generate steam. This steam is taken by pipes to turbines. The turbines are coupled to electric generators and in turning generate current which is led by cables to the four motors in the stern of the ship. There is no link between the turbo-
Each propeller is separately operated by what is known technically as a synchronous motor of approximately 5,000 horse-
There are two turbo-
Each of the generators is what is known technically as an open compound-
Distribution of the direct current for auxiliary purposes is through eighteen panels; provision is made whereby, if anything goes wrong in the engine-
Such is the machinery which makes it possible for either of these two luxury liners to travel in the course of a normal year over 100,000 miles and to make about 150 arrivals and departures.
WITH A GROSS TONNAGE OF 22,575, the Queen of Bermuda is slightly larger than her sister. Built two years later, in 1933, she has an overall length of 579 ft 6 in, a beam of 76 ft 7 in and a load draught of 27 ft 1 in. Her propeller motors develop a shaft horse-
[From part 31, published 8 September 1936]