“The subject of the cover this week is rather unusual. It shows the Wolf Lighthouse, off Land’s End, Cornwall. The lighthouse stands on a rock and its 70 candle-power light is 110 feet high. The light shows alternate red and white flashes, lasting two seconds, and is visible for a distance of sixteen miles. The work of Trinity House is an amazing example of efficiency. Trinity House is responsible for the safety of shipping round the often dangerous coasts of Great Britain, and this great task is shouldered with remarkable success. The wonders of the modern lighthouse are not, perhaps, revealed as much as they should be, but readers will remember that the chapter called Signposts of the Sea gives an insight into the story of these important aids to navigation.”
The conquest of the River Niger was effected only after many years of exploration, hardship and tragedy in the face of almost insuperable dangers. This chapter is by Sidney Howard and is the twelfth article in the series on World Waterways.
The Port of Burutu
THE PORT OF BURUTU is one of the newest African ports. After a disastrous fire in 1917, the port was rebuilt with 1,000 feet of concrete wharves fronting the Niger. Burutu is a port of shipment for palm oil. In the photograph above are the river steamers Kampe (105 tons gross), Richard Lander (220 tons gross) and Taraba (319 tons gross). The Kampe is 117 feet long, 24 feet in beam and 5 feet deep. She is used on the weekly mail and passenger service between Burutu, Warri and Baro. She draws 2 ft 4 in of water in light running condition and carries about 90 tons of cargo in addition to more than 130 passengers.
Next to the Victory, perhaps the most famous of the “wooden walls of England” was the Sovereign of the Seas, later the Sovereign and finally the Royal Sovereign. It was King Charles I who conceived the idea of building the mightiest ship that had yet been seen, and he drew up the first plans for her. The Admiralty was very much opposed to the idea, as the vessel would be of a size hitherto undreamed-of, and thus very expensive to build, and it was with difficulty that the Admiralty was persuaded to agree to the building of such a ship. She cost more than £40,000 - a sum equivalent to an amount many times greater to-day. After many vicissitudes, including a postponed launch, the Sovereign of the Seas put to sea, and it was at once apparent she was far too high to be of much use at sea. In spite of this, however, her almost legendary fame persisted. Under the Cromwellian regime, the Sovereign of the Seas was reduced to a two-decker, and began at once to justify her reputation,. In Blake’s encounter with van Tromp she acquitted herself so well that the Dutch nicknamed her the “Golden Devil”. From then till 1696, when she was accidentally destroyed by fire, she was frequently in action. Frank Bowen’s chapter describes the eventful history of this famous ship, with detail of her dimensions and armament.
Above is a drawing of a vessel standardized by Burmeister and Wain, of Copenhagen, and sold to a number of owners in Denmark and Norway. She differs in many ways from the Doxford standard tramp, of which a drawing appeared in part 29. The Bornholm (above) is a vessel of the long bridge type, with a short forecastle, long central bridge structure and short poop. All accommodation is arranged amidships on this bridge-deck, on which also are two hatches serving the holds forward and abaft the machinery space respectively. The arrangement of accommodation in the Bornholm is rather an unusual one. She has three holds, respectively fore, main and aft, and it will be noted that there are grain centre-line divisions. The ship is well able to deal with all the standard tramp cargoes namely cola, grain and lumber, if necessary. The Bornholm is owned by the Dansk-Franske Company and was completed in Copenhagen in June 1930. She has a gross tonnage of 3,177, a length of 326 ft 2 in, a beam of 50 ft 1 in and a depth of 20 ft 10 in. She has a speed of about 10½ knots when drawing 20 ft 6½ in, and she used about 5 tons of oil a day for all purposes. She is driven by a four-cycle single-acting diesel engine with 6 cylinders of 21.65 in diameter and 59.06 in stroke, the total power developed being 1,250 bhp at 105 revolutions. All the auxiliary machinery on deck and in the engine-room is electrically operated. The auxiliary drive is all-electric, taking current from diesel generators in the engine-room, which also supply the cargo winches. This is the twenty-seventh article in the series on Merchant Ship Types.
Gunboat Patrols in China
Not may people realize that the Royal Navy may be on active service in peace-time. That is a fair description of the duties of the China Gunboats, about which this chapter is devoted. The Yangtse Gunboat Patrol is a section of the Royal Navy which is always on active service. Over a stretch of 1,300 miles of river these interesting units protect civilians of every nationality from the attentions of numerous bands of pirates. This chapter is by Hector Bywater and is the ninth article in the series The Navy Goes to Work. There is a complementary article on Chinese Piracy in parts 52-53.
Russian Shipping - 2
IN THE VOLUNTEER FLEET. The Russian Volunteer Fleet was formed in 1878, and its cruiser-merchantmen were designed for use in war or peace. The Orel was built in 1890 at Newcastle-on-Tyne to the order of the Russian Volunteer Fleet Association. Of 4,528 tons gross. She had a length of 432 feet a beam of 48 feet and a depth of 24 feet.
BUILT AT KIEL, GERMAN, in 1928, the Krym is a twin-screw vessel of 4,867 tons gross, registered at Odessa, on the Black Sea. She has a semi-cruiser stern and is fitted with refrigerating machinery. With a length of 362 ft 9 in between perpendiculars, the Krym has a beam of 51 ft 1 in and a depth of 25 ft 3 in. Her twelve-cylinder oil engines have a nominal horse-power of 1,163.
000 men work on her day and night while she is in the dock.”
The River Gunboat Tern
A SPEED OF 14 KNOTS is given by the 1,370 horse-power geared turbines of the Tern. One of the smaller type of river gunboats, she has a displacement of 262 tons and was completed in 1927. She is 168 feet long, 27 feet in beam, and has a draught of 4 feet. Her armament consists of two 3 in and eight smaller guns.
Epic of the MLs
The Motor Launch Patrol included 550 MLs manned by officers and men of the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve. In the successful raids on Ostend and Zeebrugge the dramatic exploits of the MLs gained for these small craft a permanent place in naval history. This chapter is by Sidney Howard and is concluded in part 36. You can read more about the MLs by following the link to Gordon Maxwell’s book The Motor Launch Patrol (published 1920).
Miniature representations of ships attract their enthusiasts all over the world. Ship models may be ornamental (“glass-case”) or working models, and their purpose may be to give pleasure to the amateur, to advertise a shipping line, or to further research in naval architecture. This chapter is by F E Dean and complements the article on Ships in Miniature which appeared in part 9.
In a remarkably short time the Soviet Union has built up a considerable mercantile marine with the object of handling all Russia’s overseas trade in Soviet ships. Unparalleled measures have been taken to achieve this end with efficiency. This chapter is by Frank Bowen and is the eighth article in the series on Sea Transport of the Nations.
The Sovereign of the Seas
THE FINEST MAN-OF-WAR OF HER TIME, the Sovereign of the Seas marked an important stage in the development of naval architecture. She was designed by Phineas Pett. On September 25, 1637, King Charles I was present at the launching ceremony at Woolwich. She stuck on the slipway, however, and was not launched until some weeks later. The total cost of the ship was £40,833 8s 1½d, of which £6,691 were spent on her extravagant decoration. Her stern towered to a tremendous height and made her unsuitable for service at sea until 1652 when Cromwell had her reduced to a two-decker. Cromwell had her renamed Sovereign. Popular demand refused to allow the Puritans to deface her gilded decorations. Her yellow hull and gilded ornament therefore made her conspicuous in naval engagements with the Dutch, who gave her the nickname of the “Golden Devil”. At the Restoration in 1660 she was
ML8 on the River Rhine
ML8 ON THE RIVER RHINE. Two patrol motors of 220 hp gave an ML a speed of 19 knots. These fast craft, with their draught of only 3 ft 10 in, proved extraordinarily useful for patrolling coastal and river waters. At full speed the powerful engines would consume about 45 gallons of petrol an hour.
The Tilikum at Canvey Island
IN A CREEK, at Canvey Island, Essex, the Tilikum lay for some years after her remarkable voyage of over three years from Victoria, British Columbia. For a time she was exhibited at Earl’s Court, London, and eventually was shipped to British Columbia, where she was preserved.
HMS Prince Royal
BOWS OF A MODEL SHIP BUILT IN 1640. The model, of HMS Prince Royal, is a fine example of the collection in the nautical School training ship Mercury, at Hamble, Hants. It has been proposed to sell this collection to provide a perpetual endowment for the training ship.
The Beak Head of the Sovereign of the Seas
AN EXAGGERATED BEAK HEAD in the Sovereign of the Seas provided magnificent scope for a lavish and elaborate figurehead. The carving represented King Edgar on horseback trampling on the Seven Kings. On the forward bulkhead were six emblematic statues. This illustrations shows the details of a model made by Henry B. Culver of New York.
renamed Royal Sovereign and in subsequent actions set a noble example to the successors to her name. On January 29, 1696, through a watchman’s negligence, the famous ship caught fire in what is still called Sovereign Reach of the River Medway, at Chatham. She was completely destroyed. The illustration is by Harry Hudson Rodmell.